Matt's mention of Tangerine Dream's sequencing innovations reminds me of something I read somewhere long ago regarding the origins of the PPG Waveform synth (if I remember correctly) which kind of relates both to this thread and to the video looping one. Apparently Froese and Co. had commissioned the design of a computerized system to control their LIGHT SHOW when someone involved in the project had the brainstorm of applying the technology to audio, thus leading to the introduction of a new kind of instrument using a new approach to synthesis. (I'm not sure of the specifics, but I think I read this in a Contemporary Keyboard interview with Edgar Froese sometime in the early 'eighties). It's another example of someone's use of a piece of equipment for a purpose other than that for which it was designed contributing to musical evolution, and another reason for us to keep our minds open regarding the tools we use, whether or not they're on the cutting edge of technology. By looking for new ways to use the stuff that's already here, we create a niche for the gear of tomorrow, and that in turn influences the possible directions the music can take. Lee-ohki is right; we've got many tools from which to choose; high-tech, low-tech, or some combination of the two, and it makes no sense to impose arbitrary limits on our options by being absolutist. On the other hand, if someone CHOOSES to specialize and focus exclusively on a particular style, tool or technique, however retro or futurist it may be, that's up to them and we have no business telling them they're wrong. It's just nice to know that options are available. Oh, yeah; another example of computerless electronic music from about 70 years ago! Remember Lev Termen? (alias LEON THEREMIN to the English-speaking world) Now THERE was an innovator! Tim >Well, I always thought of the machines that Tangerine Dream used as >computers. There were a lot of synched-up arpeggiators and stuff. It >was before the phenomenon of "click and drag" composing, but I think >that they were using the computers available at the time. > Another example of electronic music without computers is the >early tape collage-ists, or composers of "musique concrete" like >Stockhausen.